flatland book summary

Date Published: 1884


TL;DR Summary

Step into a realm where existence is flat, literally flat! Welcome to the intriguing tale of 'Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions' by Edwin Abbott Abbott, a world where two dimensions dictate life!" The novel unfolds in an extraordinary place called Flatland, a world inhabited solely by geometric figures - lines, squares, triangles, and circles, each living a life dictated by the number of their sides.

In Flatland, a figure's social status is determined by its geometric shape, mirroring the class stratification in Victorian England. A strict hierarchy exists, from the simple line that represents womanhood to the esteemed Circle, symbolizing the clergy class.

The plot is led by a thoughtful Square, a professional gentleman whose existence takes a dramatic turn on the New Year's Eve of 1999. A visitor from the enigmatic three-dimensional realm, Spaceland, graces his flat world. The Sphere, a visitor, nudges the Square to comprehend the existence of a higher, unseen dimension, a thought hitherto inconceivable in Flatland.

The Square, once enlightened, struggles to convey this newfound understanding to his fellow Flatlanders. His efforts, however, are met with disdain and disbelief, pushing him towards the periphery of his society. A philosophical underpinning runs through this tale that talks of the shackles of perception and the adversity faced by revolutionary ideas.

Spoilers (click here to reveal spoilers)



Science Fiction
Social Commentary
Mathematical Fiction


Main Characters

A. Square: The protagonist, a middle-class member of the Flatland society, values curiosity and bravery. This is demonstrated in his willingness to embrace the knowledge of higher dimensions offered by the Sphere, despite societal backlash.

Sphere: An enlightened visitor from Spaceland, embodies wisdom and kindness, but also a degree of arrogance, reflective of his superior dimension. His action of introducing A. Square to the third dimension exemplifies these qualities.



Perception Limitations: This theme is explored through the inability of Flatlanders to perceive beyond their two-dimensional reality, as seen when A. Square initially perceives the Sphere merely as a circle.

Social Hierarchy and Inequality: This is mirrored in the geometric social structure of Flatland, where the shape determines a figure’s standing, pointing towards Victorian classism and gender disparities.

Resistance to New Ideas: The theme is embodied in the Flatlanders’ refusal to acknowledge the existence of higher dimensions and their hostility towards A. Square’s radical ideas.

Mathematical Concepts: Abbott uses the story to introduce complex mathematical and spatial concepts in an engaging and accessible way. A prime example is A. Square’s journey from Flatland to Spaceland, offering an intuitive grasp of dimensions.

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